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Thursday, July 24, 2014

What are the advantages of using the Internet as the infrastructure for electronic commerce and electronic business?

Internet has change the way of life of many people worldwide. From the fields of communication, science and technology, trade and commerce, Internet plays a great responsibility. With the advent of such technological advancement, it brings convenience and easy mode of information transfer among people of diverse locations. The Internet, as one of the most popular form of new mass communication technology, has long been of full use and advantage to all sorts of businesses especially those who are in need of efficient and wide market reach on which to channel their promotional messages.  Business, information and entertainment have been communicated with ease through such technological revolutions.
Today, the business sector uses Internet predominantly. It serves as the infrastructure for electronic commerce (e-commerce) and electronic business (e-business). Primarily, Internet is remarkable with the so-called “click-the-button” strategy. Within a single click of information searching, various data will appear in a significant time allocation. Speed may be considered as one of Internet’s feature in the e-commerce and e-business. Through the speed that the Internet possesses, it enables business to automate many operations and create worldwide, 24-hours per day presence at low cost. Increasing competition worldwide, increasing demands made by customers, and the rapid pace of change in technology are forcing companies to review the way they do business, the kinds of products and services they offer, and the speed with which they release products to market. That is the reason behind worldwide companies decision to engage to e-commerce or e-bussiness.

The internet enables businesses to automate many operations and create a worldwide, 24-hour/day presence at low cost. At the same time it empowers customers to e-shop across the globe, greatly increasing their choice of products and their information about prices.

Cybercash: The Coming Era of Electronic Money. Contributors: Robert Guttmann - author. Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan. Place of Publication: New York. Publication Year: 2002. Page Number: 85.

The advantages of e-cash are expected to be speed, cost savings, and convenience and simplicity for the consumer. Existing technologies (personal computers, telephone, fax-back) allow customers to focus their resources and make decisions through a series of self-service interactions with government. The potential for growth in e- commerce is very large and very rapid.
Trust and Loyalty in Electronic Commerce: An Agency Theory Perspective. Contributors: Zeinab Karake-Shalhoub - author. Publisher: Quorum Books. Place of Publication: Westport, CT. Publication Year: 2002. Page Number: 74.

electronic commerce has the important advantages of being dynamic and decentralized
Consumer Marketing Information. The technology of Internet shopping has generated new types of markets for information. Consumers who move through a Web site leave behind two types of data
Who Rules the Net?Internet Governance and Jurisdiction. Contributors: Clyde Wayne Crews Jr. - editor, Adam Thierer - editor. Publisher: Cato Institute. Place of Publication: Washington, DC. Publication Year: 2003. Page Number: 160.

American consultant James Moore announced the 'death of competition' in 1996, arguing that the business environment of the future would be made up of 'ecosystems' in which groups of companies would come together to provide solutions for the complex problems that cross traditional market boundaries (electronic commerce, which involves banks, telephone companies, Internet-based firms and hardware suppliers to name but a few, being a good example.
Business in a Virtual World: Exploiting Information for Competitive Advantage. Contributors: Fiona Czerniawska - author, Gavin Potter - author. Publisher: Macmillan. Place of Publication: Houndmills, England. Publication Year: 1998. Page Number: 36.

the Internet provides a very good global marketing application. e-Business enthusiasts will be well aware of the technical and financial advantages of e-Commerce. Internet -based business activities are opening up markets, improving information provision about different products, including non-corporate information. (For example, typing ‘Nike’ into a search engine finds company pages as well as sites about Nike products alleging human rights abuses by the company. ) The Internet allows consumers much greater access to information, opening up the market and undermining monopolies.

E-Business Fundamentals: Managing Organisations in the Electronic Age. Contributors: Peter M. Eckersley - editor, Lisa Harris - editor, Paul Jackson - editor. Publisher: Routledge. Place of Publication: New York. Publication Year: 2003. Page Number: 137

Wednesday, July 23, 2014


            For the past two years, I have been studying in a university and currently working at a primary school in London. During this period, I have encountered experiences, which had thought me several new learnings. These in turn have allowed me to become a better individual. Through the significant changes that happened to me, I was able to enhance my behavior and skills. The experiences I had during those years are also likely to help me develop into an effective professional in the future. In this paper, I will discuss the stages of my professional development including the specific learnings and changes that I was able to gain for the past two years. Furthermore, my professional development will be analyzed and evaluated through the use of relevant learning theories.
Knowledge and Understanding
            Presently, I am studying at a university while working in a primary school in London located in London. For the past two years of studying and working, I was able to achieve significant changes in my personal and professional life. During my first year, most of my focus was centered on adaptation, particularly to the academic demands of my chosen course. Considering that I would have to attend my classes, submit requirements and study for examinations, the first year of the professional development allowed me to develop my time management skills. Through this change, I was able to learn how to make study plans that works for me. Moreover, I was able to budget my time and allot sufficient attention to more important priorities. 
            This professional development was passed on to my second year; however, aside from developing the ability to budget my time and set priorities, I was also able to develop a certain degree of confidence and perseverance towards my studies and other responsibilities. This perhaps is attributed to the fact that I was able to employ studying and working pattern that suit my needs. Having been exposed to the actual work load that the university and my work site demand, I was able to perform without the need for adjustments. With this, I realize I am able to concentrate more on what I have to do and accomplish.

            Considering that it has been my second year, academic works have naturally become more challenging; nonetheless, compared to last year, I am more calm and organized in handling them. During my first year, I was able to develop study skills, personal capabilities and values through the different demands of my course. Having learned these important skills, I was able to utilize them easily to my second year academic demands. During this time, I have also become more sensitive to my inner strengths; I was able to make full use of my self-awareness and self-evaluation capabilities, especially in performing different tasks in school and at work. Through self-evaluation, I was able to clearly identify what my goals are and how I could improve myself to achieve them.

            Within two years of my professional journey, I was able to learn how to optimize various learning opportunities. One of which is through the participation to various seminars. Through this learning opportunity, I was able to learn by means of asking questions and discussing relevant topics. The seminars allowed me to become open to different ideas as well. Tutorial is another learning opportunity that contributed to my professional development. This has generally helped me to progress through my course; moreover, this has also taught me how to plan for the sessions. Setting and meeting deadlines are also additional skills that I gained from this learning opportunity.

One of the important skills I gained from doing tutorials is to integrate my studies and school experiences together with my work at the primary school. Specifically, I was able to understand more of the different situations I encountered at work and was able to resolve them through learning application. Likewise, I was able to understand my course more through my work experiences. In general, I was able to develop professionally during my second year as I was able to improve both my studying and working achievements by integrating my experiences and learned skills effectively.

            The description of my knowledge and understanding has clearly shown how I developed personally and professionally for the past two years. To support this description, certain learning theories can be used. Howard Gardner is one of the known theorist on learning styles and intelligence. Among his known works include the theory on Multiple Intelligence. According to Gardner (1983), intelligence is pertains to the ability of an individual to solve problems; in addition, intelligence can be defined through different categories. Some of these classifications of intelligence include spatial, musical, mathematical and linguistic abilities.

One of the intelligence types identified by Gardner was personal intelligence. Based from my professional development, much of my development had been through the use of this intelligence category. In particular, I was able to optimize my intrapersonal intelligence, which focuses on understanding one’s feeling and motivations. Through this intelligence category I was able to clearly identify my goals and work to achieve them. Aside from this, I was also able to use spatial intelligence to develop personally and professionally. Spatial intelligence refers to the generation of mental images to resolve certain problems. In order to overcome the issues I have encountered at work, I made use of my learnings at the university as a student. Through this, I was able to make practical applications of my studies. On the other hand, spatial intelligence also allowed me to understand my course more through my work experiences. Through Gardner’s theory, I could say that my journey towards professional development is enhanced through the utilization of my inherent skills and mental capabilities.

I recently took a learning style questionnaire assessment to understand my learning capabilities and potentials more. The result indicated that I am a reflector. According to Peter Honey and Alan Mumford (1986), learning styles can be classified in accordance to how individuals prefer to learn. These styles include the activist, theorist, reflector and the pragmatist. The theorists describe reflectors as those who learn from activities while listening and observing. These are the individuals who prefer to be given the chance to gather and analyze the information first before acting or commenting; they tend to spend time to review the situation before developing a conclusion.

The preference of the reflectors to ponder on experiences or situations enables them to analyze things though various perspectives. Individuals considered as reflectors are thoughtful and take into account all possible options or angles of the situation before making a move. As they tend to collect situational data first and delay the generation of conclusions, they are often described as the cautious type. During meetings, reflectors often take the seat at the back; while people are in action, they appear to enjoy observing their movements. Whenever there is a discussion, reflectors tend to listen to others’ ideas first before formulating their own. In general, they are the individuals who are slightly distant and tolerant; moreover, they seem to prefer a low profile when tasked on group activities.

This learning style typology speaks so much of my professional development for the past two years. Specifically, the learning opportunities that I have participated in showed my features as a reflector. Rather than insist on my own ideas, I tend to listen and observe more. By means of the ideas of others, I am able to learn the different aspects of a subject matter; in turn, this allowed me to become more open-minded and knowledgeable on certain topics. Moreover, my preferred learning style allowed me to combine my own and other’s ideas, resulting to a generalization that I could easily understand and relate to.

A relevant learning theory is Kolb’s (1984) Experiential Learning Model (ELM). According this model, the learning cycle is made up of four modes of learning. These include concrete experience (CE), reflective observation (RO), abstract conceptualization (AC) and active experimentation (AE). These learning modes are placed at the ends of two interconnecting continua, forming quadrants. This then became the basis of Kolb for his learning styles, which are derived from the combination of two learning modes. These learning styles include the diverger (CE and RO), the converger (AC and AE), the assimilator (RO and AC) and the accommodator (AE and CE). Basically, the divergers prefer learning that involves imaginative problem-solving; convergers are more on practical solutions; assimilators prefer rational theory building; and accommodators are into hand-on experience.

Based from Kolb’s learning modes, my professional development and learning is more patterned on the reflector mode – one who learns through perception. Atkinson and Murrell (1988) described this learning mode further by stating that reflectors are observers who formulate ideas by incorporating their observations into logical theories. Similar to the theory of Honey and Mumford, Kolb (1985) noted that reflectors are learners who analyze situations and ideas through their different angles in order for them to form opinions. Reflectors are the type of learners who prefer lectures and other similar learning activities. In group tasks, they attempt to comprehend the different perspectives raised by their group members. When asked to write essays, reflectors would typically prefer to conduct preliminary research first before making the content of the paper. For examinations, reflectors tend to prefer compare-contrast and argumentative questions as these would require the analysis of both side of the issue. Among Kolb’s learning style, my professional development is characterized by the features of an assimilator. Holley and Jenkins (1993) stated that this learning style rely more on the use of logic and inductive reasoning to build theories. Assimilators are effective in understanding a wide range of information and organizing them into logical forms.

Kolb’s theories on learning styles emphasize that the development of a person is significantly dependent on their learning preferences and inherent capabilities. It is then my ability to observe and integrate my observations for my own development that serve as an important contributor to my development as a person and as a professional. The process of my professional development is also influenced by my own potentials as well as the learnings I gained from my experiences at work and in school. As a reflective learner, I was able to effectively integrate all these learning, which in turn allowed me to develop my own skills, behavior and values.

            From the description of my two-year experience as a student and worker, I was able to undergo various positive transformations. Most of these developments were centered on the improvement of my studying skills and attitude. Initially, I was more focused on adjusting and learning various methods to make myself a better student and individual. However, as time goes, I was able to concentrate more to my studies and work responsibilities as I was already able to develop ways on how to cope with such challenges. Using various learning theories I was able to realize that the use of inherent potentials and intelligence can greatly influence the outcome of ones professional development. Moreover, theories stressed that using my preferred learning style enabled me to integrate my learnings and experiences in my school tasks as well as in handling various work situations.

            Through all these, I was able to manage my time wisely, develop effective study plans as well as enhance my listening and observing skills. In general, it is then important that individual clearly determine their own inherent skills and learning preferences; these should then be used in order for them to adapt effectively to varying situations. By doing so, more useful skills can be obtained, leading to a more fruitful professional development. 

Wednesday, July 2, 2014

[Essay] Teaching Mathematics

This paper discusses the “Factors Affecting the Academic Performance of Children in Math particularly in counting”. Basically, the research will analyze and investigate the different variables that affect the learning capabilities of the students. This shall include a discussion on the positive and negative variables related to the academic performance of the students in mathematics; an analysis of performance of the Allfarthing Primary school students in relation to mathematics education stability was also conducted. Particularly, the research will focus on examining the impact of these variables to the progress of both the student and education system. 

In this changing world, those who understand and can do mathematics will have significantly enhanced opportunities and options for shaping their future (NCTM, 2000). On the other hand, Mevarech, Z. and Bracha Kramarski (1997) developed the instructional strategy that can be applied to heterogeneous classrooms in their study "IMPROVE-Multidimensional Method for Teaching Mathematics in Heterogeneous Classrooms". The strategy, IMPROVE, (Introducing new concepts, Metacognitive questioning, Practicing, Reviewing and reducing difficulties, Obtaining mastery, Verification, and Enrichment) has been proven to keep mathematics progress at a constant pace throughout the school year. The academic group as a whole continued to progress, and the progress of one academic group does not come at the expense of the other groups. It is important for teachers to have consistent strategy they could use in their teaching. The study of Alsup, J.K. and Sprigler, M.J. (2003), shows that the classroom teacher's perspective should consider the cost and time being spent by teachers and school district to implement reform math. Moreover, a reform mathematics curriculum is expensive to implement; teachers must be trained and supplementary kits must be purchased. Such expenses, in the author’s opinion, are questionable, since a reform mathematics curriculum did not promote an increase in the student achievement. In classroom, a traditional mathematics curriculum was superior with regard to teaching skills and procedural competency and, thus, would help students at the high school level, since success in high-school math courses in school district is "built upon the foundation of facts and procedures." Alsup, J.K. and Sprigler, M.J. (2003). Basically, Alsup, J.K. and Sprigler, M.J. (2003) statement should be considered since it depicts the future of mathematics education. In connection to cost and time being spent to receive quality education, the teachers and school administrators should give extra effort in designing teaching strategies that is applicable to London education. On the other hand, in relation to the variables of learning, the school environment is the broader context of the school that allows for classroom instruction and student learning (Tunney, 1996). A transformation to a community should take place throughout the school wide environment by maximizing the number of positive interactions with students and parents. Teachers are capable of producing profound and positive changes in student behaviours and learning by effectively modeling the positive processes, skills, and attitudes that parents teach (Hindle, 1996). 

School Size
Recent research on the effect of school size on student achievement indicates that a small school strategy may be a powerful school improvement model. While there is no single definition of “smallness,” some research indicates that an effective size for an elementary school is in the range of 300-400 students and that 400-800 students is appropriate for a secondary school (Cotton, 1996). Lee and Smith (1996) argue that slightly larger secondary schools, from 600-900 students, are necessary for good curricular diversity. On the other hand, small school advocates such as Deborah Meier and Ted Sizer of the Coalition of Essential Schools, believe that no secondary school should exceed 300 students (Cushman, 1997). For both elementary and secondary students of all ability levels and in all kinds of settings, research has repeatedly found small schools to be superior to large schools on most measures and equal to them on the rest. A recent review of 103 studies identifies the relationship of school size to various aspects of schooling (Cotton, 1996): Academic achievement in small schools is at least equal, and often superior, to that of large schools. The effects of small schools on the achievement of ethnic minority students and students of low socioeconomic status are the most positive of all. Student attitudes toward school in general and toward particular school subjects are more positive in small schools. Student social behavior, as measured by truancy, discipline problems, violence, theft, substance abuse, and gang participation, is more positive in small schools. Levels of extracurricular participation are much higher and more varied in small schools than large ones. Student attendance is better in small schools than in large ones, especially with minority or low SES students. A smaller percentage of students drop out of small schools than large ones. Students have a greater sense of belonging in small schools than in large ones. Interpersonal relations between and among students, teachers, and administrators are more positive in small schools than in large ones. Student academic and general self-regard is higher in small schools than in large schools. Students from small and large high schools perform comparably on college-related variables, such as grades, admissions, and graduation rates. Despite the common belief that larger schools have higher quality curricula than small schools, no reliable relationship exists between school size and curriculum quality. Larger schools are not necessarily less expensive to operate than small schools. Small high schools cost more money only if one tries to maintain the big-school infrastructure (e.g., a large bureaucracy). Apparenlty, in order to provide an optimal learning environment for students, one must first work to establish a classroom community (Au, 1993). A classroom community provides each child with space to develop specific capabilities and to experience a sense of inner balance and wholeness in a community with others. The school environment is the broader context of the school that allows for classroom instruction and student learning (Tunney, 1996). A transformation to a community should take place throughout the school wide environment by maximizing the number of positive interactions with students and parents. Teachers are capable of producing profound and positive changes in student behaviors and learning by effectively modeling the positive processes, skills, and attitudes that parents teach (Hindle, 1996). Bringing members of a class together for certain activities engenders the feeling of belonging to a group and in turn establishes class spirit (Bergin, 1999). With this, students who feel that they belong to a group have power in decision-making and have freedom of choices (Tunney, 1996). The classroom community can be developed by a number of means. Students should develop a process of understanding, sharing, compassion and empathy. The classroom should be referred to by the teacher as "our classroom" rather than "my classroom". The development of a community is moving from doing things TO students to doing things FOR students (Tunney, 1996). 

Developmental Skills and Abilities of Children
Basically, knowledge of child development traditionally has been viewed as a core component for designing activities and evaluating curriculum in early childhood education (Charlesworth, Hart, Burts, & DeWolf, 1993 and Hyson, 1996). In addition, a considerable body of research indicates that teacher beliefs influence decision-making in the classroom (Fang, 1996). In addition, the consideration of the learning skills of the students in mathematics particularly to counting should be understood. Due to the considerable speed and interrelated nature of development during early childhood, early childhood educators tend to approach their mission from a more holistic perspective than do educators of older children. This philosophy of educating the whole child has led early education theorists to emphasize the importance of addressing children's social and emotional needs as well as their cognitive and physical ones (Biber, 1984 and Hendrick, 1996). Echoing these sentiments, the current dominant approach to early education (i.e., developmentally appropriate practice) stresses that education practice should be tailored to fit the developmental level of the children being served (Bredekamp & Copple, 1997). This approach argues that the educational outcomes that teachers focus on should change with children's developmental level, and it cautions against introducing academic content so early in the educational process that children have not attained the requisite developmental skills and abilities to allow comprehension of that content (Bredekamp & Shepard, 1989; Elkind, 1987; Katz, 1994). This early introduction of academic content is not only believed to be ineffective in terms of longterm learning goals, but also leads to increased levels of stress in children (Burts et al., 1992), and likely has a negative impact on their dispositions towards learning and the development of their self-conceptions, Katz & Chard, 1989). On the other hand, early childhood teachers' beliefs about educational practice are shaped both by the training they receive (Brown & Rose, 1995) and by their personal experiences working with children in the classroom (Williams, 1996). Examining these beliefs is important because research indicates that teachers' beliefs influence classroom practice. Measures of teachers' beliefs related to developmentally appropriate practice have been found to be related to their use of instructional methods that are consistent with that approach (Charlesworth, Hart, Burts, Thommason, Mosley, & Fleege, 1993). Similar relations between teachers' expressed beliefs and classroom practices related to literacy instruction (Wing, 1989) and children's play (Spidell, 1989) also have been observed. Despite these findings linking teachers' beliefs to classroom practice, it should be noted that this relation is often less than isomorphic, and that some studies report considerable inconsistency between teachers' expressed beliefs and the teaching methods they use (Sharp & Green, 1975;). Part of this inconsistency can be attributed to the fact that teachers do not always feel free to put their beliefs into practice because of constraints that they feel are imposed on them by administrators, parents, and the demands of standardized testing (Brown & Rose, 1995; Hitz & Wright, 1988). Insufficient professional training also may contribute to the observed inconsistency between teachers' expressed values and classroom practice, because teachers may not always have the skills and abilities they need to bring their beliefs to fruition. Apparently, knowing more about how teachers rate the importance of various developmental skills and abilities is crucial for several reasons. First, it helps researchers and policymakers consider how other factors affecting the early childhood classroom, such as administrative directives and assessment issues, either support or conflict with teachers' beliefs. Second, in that teachers tend to emphasize those skills and abilities that they consider important, knowing what those items are can provide us with valuable insights into teacher decision making. Third, policymakers and educators can highlight particular areas of teacher education and training programs, based on teachers' beliefs concerning the importance of various developmental outcomes. Finally, considering teachers' extensive clinical experience interacting with children on a daily basis, knowing which skills and abilities they see as important can help bring about valuable insights about children and child development (Zimiles, 1993). 

Student’s Readiness
In connection to the factors that lead to errors in counting of children, student’s readiness should be considered. Apparently, there are many factors that directly affect the learning capabilities of the students particularly in counting i.e. external factors (students background), individual differences, teaching methods, learning setting, and behaviour. Thus, the teacher should facilitate an appropriate teaching method that suits to the learning capabilities of the students. In providing a quality teaching method, the teacher should construct a very capable and appropriate lesson plan (see appendix for sample mathematics lesson plan). The term 'readiness in school' is used to describe a number of different understandings of what constitutes the ingredients necessary for a child to make a successful transition from preschool or other prior-to-school setting to the formal school environment. Initially it was regarded as a child characteristic (e.g. Ilg & Ames, 1969). Later, the role of environment in children's early learning became a focus of interest (Graue, 1993) with contemporary conceptions incorporating both views. Currently, the predominant view is that school readiness is an interaction of child characteristics and school capacity to be flexible in meeting the individual needs of children in their initial year(s) of formal schooling (May & Kundert, 1997; Peterson, 1994). Basically, preschool teachers are influential in determining the day-to-day experiences of children in the year(s) before formal schooling as well as in decision-making about whether a child should progress to school (Tanner & Galis, 1997). It is clear that many teachers believe maturation is crucial to the development of skills necessary for a successful transition to school, with many supporting delayed-entry for some and boys being more likely to be retained in preschool than girls (May & Kundert, 1997). Investigations of teacher views of skills considered to be important for successful transition to school have found an emphasis on language abilities, including listening skills, self-confidence and social skills, with academic skills having a relatively lower priority (Lewitt & Baker, 1995). Moreover, for preschooler, adults can nurture preschooler's positive self-esteem by helping them discover what they are good at doing. Part of a child's self esteem comes from feeling competent and skilled at something she or he enjoys. You can play a big role in helping children to be successful and feel good about themselves. A place to start is by creating opportunities for children to explore different objects, activities, and people. Early in life, children show personality traits and preferences for what they like and dislike. By planning learning opportunities with children's unique personality styles in mind, you nuture their positive feelings about themselves. In addition, children learn about the world in many different ways. One educator, Howard Gardner (1995), believes that children's ways of learning can be grouped into different categories. To help children discover their personal abilities and learning preferences, you can provide opportunities that cover the eight different types of learning. Some children have many interests and want to learn about a variety of things; other children are satisfied with one or two kinds of learning and want to focus mostly on them. All children are unique; what is important is that you help them to learn what they are good at, what they enjoy and what makes them feel good about themselves. Recognizing children's unique personality styles can help adults to better understand children and to plan activities that children can learn from and enjoy. Research shows that a child's emotional style, activity level and social nature are present during the first few months of life and are unlikely to change much over time. 

This world is a tremendously huge place. It is a fact that in your existence you will never identify all there is to recognize. But learning is the greatest gift you can give to yourself. Basically, by learning about the world around you, you’re giving yourself the chance to understand just how far we have come since the beginning of man. If it weren’t for learning, you wouldn’t speak or write, you wouldn’t be able to communicate through the use of language, you wouldn’t have the use of things like telephones, televisions, bicycles, cars, and any man-made invention that exists today. In connection to learning development, researches reveal that preschooling is one of the most important stages of brain development which is the considered factors in learning. There is more happening in colorful, wonderfully busy preschools than meets the eye. Fun, role playing, block building, finger painting, laughter, negotiating, singing and dancing are just a few of the types of activities you will see in good preschool programs. Basically, this simple program has a great impact to the learning process of the children. Children are developing the critical but important skills, which are the foundation for life. For the children, families and community it is very important to consider the quality childhood programs. A growing body of research indicates that children who attend high quality early childhood programs benefit socially, emotionally and cognitively. Research shows that children enrolled in good preschool programs tend to have a positive transition into kindergarten, are more successful in later school years and show higher verbal and intellectual development than children who do not attend high quality programs ( Moreover, these children (preschool learners) demonstrate high levels of social competence - self-esteem, social behavior, and motivation - a critical predicator of adult adaptation. Under the guidance of responsive and consistent teachers in a nurturing environment and communication with parents, children learn important social skills such as initiating and developing satisfying relationships with adults and peers; developing the ability to regulate emotions; communicating needs, desires and difficulties; and engaging in age appropriate problem solving; are all acquired. Socially competent preschool children are not only more likely to have success throughout their school years, but are also more likely to make positive contributions to our community. Social competence, along with intellectual and physical development is facilitated in high quality preschool programs by providing children with lots of opportunities to engage in play. Responsive teachers follow children's lead and provide them with developmentally appropriate opportunities to use their imagination, listen to stories, make choices, explore and understand materials and the environment, and exercise their bodies. Preschool programs experience maximum success when they support children and their families. High quality preschool programs make important contributions to our community by nurturing the unique strengths of each child thereby allowing children to reach their full potential. After successfully completing preschool we hope children will have an increased love for self and for learning, and be prepared for a promising future. Ultimately it’s up to the parent to decide what they believe is best for their child, but research shows that starting school at an early age will positively effect their learning process.